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Preliminary Design and Off-Design Analysis of a Radial Outflow Turbine for Organic Rankine Cycles
Jun-Seong Kim 1 and Do-Yeop Kim 2,*
1 Nuclear Power Equipment Research Center, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727, Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, Korea; firstname.lastname@example.org
2 Division of Marine System Engineering, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, 727, Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 49112, Korea
* Correspondence: email@example.com; Tel.: +82-51-410-4282
Received: 8 April 2020; Accepted: 21 April 2020; Published: 24 April 2020
Abstract: Recently, the advantages of radial outflow turbines have been outstanding in various operating conditions of the organic Rankine cycle. However, there are only a few studies of such turbines, and information on the design procedure is insufficient. The main purpose of this study is to provide more detailed information on the design methodology of the turbine. In this paper, a preliminary design program of a radial outflow turbine for organic Rankine cycles was developed. The program determines the main specifications of the turbine through iterative calculations using the enthalpy loss model and deviation angle model. For reliability evaluation of the developed algorithm, a 400.0 kW turbine for R143a was designed. The designed turbine was validated through computational fluid dynamics. As a result, the accuracy of the program was about 95% based on the turbine power, which shows that it is reliable. In addition, the turbine target performance could be achieved by fine-tuning the blade angle of the nozzle exit. In addition, performance evaluation of the turbine against off-design conditions was performed. Ranges of velocity ratio, loading coefficient, and flow coefficient that can expect high efficiency were proposed through the off- design analysis of the turbine.
Keywords: radial outflow turbine; organic Rankine cycle; preliminary design; off-design analysis; computational fluid dynamics
Environmental regulations are gradually being strengthened due to air pollution and global warming . Therefore, research on eco-friendly power generation systems that can replace fossil fuels has been actively conducted. In accordance with this global trend, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is one of the eco-friendly power generation cycles that is in the spotlight . In the organic Rankine cycle, the turbine is a key factor in the efficiency and cost of the power generation cycle [3,4]. For this reason, research on the turbine design technology for organic Rankine cycles is continuously being performed.
The most used types of turbines for organic Rankine cycles are axial turbines and radial inflow turbines. The axial turbine is advantageous for high efficiency and high power through a multi-stage configuration . On the other hand, the blade height of the axial turbine increases from the first stage to the last stage according to the expansion of the working fluid. As the blade height increases, the blade must be twisted as the velocity triangles of the hub and tip differ greatly from each other . Therefore, the axial turbine is relatively difficult to design and fabricate. The radial inflow turbine is easy to manufacture and has good performance even under off-design conditions . However,
Energies 2020, 13, x; doi: FOR PEER REVIEW www.mdpi.com/journal/energies
Image | Analysis of a Radial Outflow Turbine for Organic Rankine Cycles
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RADIAL-OUTFLOW-TURBINE: In a radial outflow turbine the organic fluid enters the disk axially in its center and expands radially through a series of stages mounted on the single disk. At the discharge of the last rotor row the flow passes through a radial diffuser and is then conveyed to the recuperator and or condensa- tion section of the system, through the discharge volute. In the early 20th century, Parsons Siemens and Ljungstrom developed the first steam based radial outflow turbines. These early model turbines required a large number of stages. For very high enthalpy drop fluids, such as steam, a single-disk/multi stage configuration was therefore deemed not suitable due to the very large diameter disk necessary to accommodate all the required stages. No further development of the radial outflow turbines oc- curred, as they were phased out for steam applications by axial turbines.
The Geothermal Radial Outflow Turbine: An innovative turbine configuration for geothermal applica- tions was developed by the Italian turbine manufacturer EXERGY. The technology, known as the organic radial outflow turbine was designed, engineered, manufactured and tested in Italy. A 1 MWe geothermal organic Rankine cycle (ORC) equipped with the EXERGY radial outflow turbine has been in operation since early 2013. The radial outflow turbine is a new type of turbine that have the potential to increase the geothermal binary power plants ef- ficiency by increasing the turbine efficiency. The operational results has been positive and demonstrates the viability of the technology and the possibility to develop it for bigger sizes.
Preliminary Design and Off-Design Analysis of a Radial Outflow Turbine for Organic Rankine Cycles: Recently, the advantages of radial outflow turbines have been outstanding in various operating conditions of the organic Rankine cycle. However, there are only a few studies of such turbines, and information on the design procedure is insufficient. The turbine target performance could be achieved by fine-tuning the blade angle of the nozzle exit. In addition, performance evaluation of the turbine against off-design conditions was performed. Ranges of velocity ratio, loading coefficient, and flow coefficient that can expect high efficiency were proposed through the off-design analysis of the turbine.
Study on applicability of radial-outflow turbine type for 3 MW WHR organic Rankine cycle: The article presents the results of study on the reasonability of using radial-outflow turbines in ORC. Peculiarities of radial-outflow turbine design utilizing modern design technologies and application to ORC was considered in the first part of the paper. For this particular cycle design, turbines of radial-outflow type were chosen. Their application enables the increase of mechanical output power by 11 percent compared to original radial-inflow turbines.
LOSS GENERATION IN RADIAL OUTFLOW STEAM TURBINE CASCADES: Small high-speed technology based radial outflow steam turbines are characterised by ultra-low aspect ratios, which can lead to rapidly growing secondary losses. The prelimi- nary evaluation of turbine performance is usually based on axial turbine loss predictions, which can be a source of error. The main objectives of this work are to find out how the losses are generated in radial outflow turbines when the aspect ratio is markedly below unity and how accurately axial turbine loss models can predict the trends. To achieve these objectives, a radial outflow turbine cascade having a blade shape and aspect ratios comparable with a prototype machine is examined. As a result of the study, it is suggested that for the examined radial outflow cascade the axial turbine loss correlations can predict the trends reasonably well. The rapidly increasing secondary losses are connected to the merging of secondary structures and also incidence at off-design.
PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF RADIAL-INFLOW TURBINES FOR ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE POWER SYSTEMS CONSIDERING PERFORMANCE AND MANUFACTURABILITY ASPECTS: In order to make organic Rankine cycle power systems economically feasible, it is essential to find a reasonable trade-off between the performance and the initial cost of system. In order to show its relevance in a practical application, the method is applied to two radial-inflow turbines cases: a state-of-the-art turbine using air and a turbine using the working fluid Novec 649 for a heat recovery application. The results indicate that there exists a trade-off between turbine performance and manufacturability, and that it is possible to develop turbine solutions with similar values of efficiency with improved manufacturability indicator by up to 14 to 15 percent.
DESIGN AND FLOW ANALYSIS OF RADIAL AND MIXED FLOW TURBINE VOLUTES: Radial and mixed flow turbines which are an important component of a turbocharger consist essentially of a volute, a rotor and a diffuser. Vaneless volute turbines, which have reasonable performance and low cost, are the most used in turbochargers for automotive engines. Care has to be done in the design of the volute, whose function is to convert a part of the engine exhaust gas energy into kinetic energy and direct the flow towards the rotor inlet at an appropriate flow angle with reduced losses.
An Exploration of Radial Flow on a Rotating Blade in Retreating Blade Stall: The nature of radial flow during retreating blade stall on a two-bladed teetering rotor with cyclic pitch variation is investigated using laser sheet visualization and particle image velocimetry in a low-speed wind tunnel. The velocity field above the retreating blade at 270◦ azimuth shows the expected development of a radially directed jet layer close to the blade surface in the otherwise separated flow region. This jet is observed to break up into discrete structures, limiting the spanwise growth of the radial velocity in the jet layer. The discrete structures are shown to derive their vorticity from the “radial jet” layer near the surface, rather than from the freestream at the edge of the separated region. The separation line determined using velocity data shows the expected spanwise variation. The results of this study are also correlated in a limited range of extrapolation to the phenomena encountered on a full-scale horizontal axis wind turbine in yaw.
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