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Publication Title | Exergy installations go online in Turkey

Waste Heat to Energy ORC Information Series

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All power plants have obtained the Turkish Ministry Acceptance allowing the customers GreenEco Enerji, RSC Enerji and Kiper Elektrik to benefit the full national FEED in Tariff
Olgiate Olona, 09 November 2020 – EXERGY INTERNATIONAL, a leading provider of new generation geothermal binary power plants, part of the Chinese TICA Corporation, brought online three new geothermal power plants in Turkey last October. These plants are a 26 MWe for Greeneco Enerji, a 12 MWe for RSC Enerji and a 10 MWe for Kiper Elektrik.
The Greeneco Enerji project, awarded to EXERGY in late December 2019, has been completed in less than ten months. For all projects Exergy and the customers worked in great synergy, coping with all complications and tight constraints imposed by the Coronavirus pandemic outbreak during the execution of the contract, to achieve the delivery on time. This allowed the three customers to obtain the Turkish Ministry Acceptance for their plants well within the end of October thus meeting the target for benefitting the highest national Feed in Tariff thanks to local content manufacturing.
Located in Sarayköy, in the Denizli district as the previous five units, the new unit for Greeneco Enerji is a single pressure cycle equipped with two Radial Outflow turbines, employing air-cooled condensing system with a total power output of 26MWe. The scope of EXERGY’s contract included the engineering, supply and site support of the power plant. This project represents the sixth repeat order from Greeneco which already counted a total of 76 MWe geothermal power plants in operation with EXERGY’s technology and With this plant EXERGY will exceed the mark of 100 MWe capacity delivered to the customer.
The 12 MWe geothermal power plant for RSC Enerji is located in the Seferihisar district, close to Izmir, featuring one of the key solutions of Exergy, a two-pressure level cycle on a single turbine. This efficient and performing design was applied as a world first in 2014 for the AKCA Enerji power plant. Exergy’s contract has involved the engineering, manufacturing and site advisory services of the power plant.
The third plant commissioned at the end of October is a 10 MWe unit for the customer Kiper Elektrik a subsidiary company of the Kipaş Holding Group, another repeat customer with two EXERGY’s plant already in operation. With this unit the total capacity up to now delivered to Kipas reaches approx. 60 MWe. Located in the Aydin region this 10 MWe ORC unit is a two-pressure cycle equipped with one Radial Outflow Turbine and employs a water-cooled condensing system.
Albert Yam, CEO of EXERGY INTERNATIONAL commented on this double success: “The unbelievable target we were able to achieve with these projects has been possible thanks to Customers’ and Exergy’s team, working with collaborative efforts to get over all challenges, particularly when situations were changing fast during the growth of the global pandemic of Covid-19 and Governments imposed severe restrictions

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MicroAD: This research and pdf compilation was sponsored Infinity Turbine Turn your waste heat into energy to save on grid based power or sell back to the grid Organic Rankine Cycle utilizes waste heat to make power. Infinity Turbine Waste Heat to Power Solutions

RADIAL-OUTFLOW-TURBINE: In a radial outflow turbine the organic fluid enters the disk axially in its center and expands radially through a series of stages mounted on the single disk. At the discharge of the last rotor row the flow passes through a radial diffuser and is then conveyed to the recuperator and or condensa- tion section of the system, through the discharge volute. In the early 20th century, Parsons Siemens and Ljungstrom developed the first steam based radial outflow turbines. These early model turbines required a large number of stages. For very high enthalpy drop fluids, such as steam, a single-disk/multi stage configuration was therefore deemed not suitable due to the very large diameter disk necessary to accommodate all the required stages. No further development of the radial outflow turbines oc- curred, as they were phased out for steam applications by axial turbines.

The Geothermal Radial Outflow Turbine: An innovative turbine configuration for geothermal applica- tions was developed by the Italian turbine manufacturer EXERGY. The technology, known as the organic radial outflow turbine was designed, engineered, manufactured and tested in Italy. A 1 MWe geothermal organic Rankine cycle (ORC) equipped with the EXERGY radial outflow turbine has been in operation since early 2013. The radial outflow turbine is a new type of turbine that have the potential to increase the geothermal binary power plants ef- ficiency by increasing the turbine efficiency. The operational results has been positive and demonstrates the viability of the technology and the possibility to develop it for bigger sizes.

Preliminary Design and Off-Design Analysis of a Radial Outflow Turbine for Organic Rankine Cycles: Recently, the advantages of radial outflow turbines have been outstanding in various operating conditions of the organic Rankine cycle. However, there are only a few studies of such turbines, and information on the design procedure is insufficient. The turbine target performance could be achieved by fine-tuning the blade angle of the nozzle exit. In addition, performance evaluation of the turbine against off-design conditions was performed. Ranges of velocity ratio, loading coefficient, and flow coefficient that can expect high efficiency were proposed through the off-design analysis of the turbine.

Study on applicability of radial-outflow turbine type for 3 MW WHR organic Rankine cycle: The article presents the results of study on the reasonability of using radial-outflow turbines in ORC. Peculiarities of radial-outflow turbine design utilizing modern design technologies and application to ORC was considered in the first part of the paper. For this particular cycle design, turbines of radial-outflow type were chosen. Their application enables the increase of mechanical output power by 11 percent compared to original radial-inflow turbines.

LOSS GENERATION IN RADIAL OUTFLOW STEAM TURBINE CASCADES: Small high-speed technology based radial outflow steam turbines are characterised by ultra-low aspect ratios, which can lead to rapidly growing secondary losses. The prelimi- nary evaluation of turbine performance is usually based on axial turbine loss predictions, which can be a source of error. The main objectives of this work are to find out how the losses are generated in radial outflow turbines when the aspect ratio is markedly below unity and how accurately axial turbine loss models can predict the trends. To achieve these objectives, a radial outflow turbine cascade having a blade shape and aspect ratios comparable with a prototype machine is examined. As a result of the study, it is suggested that for the examined radial outflow cascade the axial turbine loss correlations can predict the trends reasonably well. The rapidly increasing secondary losses are connected to the merging of secondary structures and also incidence at off-design.

PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF RADIAL-INFLOW TURBINES FOR ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE POWER SYSTEMS CONSIDERING PERFORMANCE AND MANUFACTURABILITY ASPECTS: In order to make organic Rankine cycle power systems economically feasible, it is essential to find a reasonable trade-off between the performance and the initial cost of system. In order to show its relevance in a practical application, the method is applied to two radial-inflow turbines cases: a state-of-the-art turbine using air and a turbine using the working fluid Novec 649 for a heat recovery application. The results indicate that there exists a trade-off between turbine performance and manufacturability, and that it is possible to develop turbine solutions with similar values of efficiency with improved manufacturability indicator by up to 14 to 15 percent.

DESIGN AND FLOW ANALYSIS OF RADIAL AND MIXED FLOW TURBINE VOLUTES: Radial and mixed flow turbines which are an important component of a turbocharger consist essentially of a volute, a rotor and a diffuser. Vaneless volute turbines, which have reasonable performance and low cost, are the most used in turbochargers for automotive engines. Care has to be done in the design of the volute, whose function is to convert a part of the engine exhaust gas energy into kinetic energy and direct the flow towards the rotor inlet at an appropriate flow angle with reduced losses.

An Exploration of Radial Flow on a Rotating Blade in Retreating Blade Stall: The nature of radial flow during retreating blade stall on a two-bladed teetering rotor with cyclic pitch variation is investigated using laser sheet visualization and particle image velocimetry in a low-speed wind tunnel. The velocity field above the retreating blade at 270◦ azimuth shows the expected development of a radially directed jet layer close to the blade surface in the otherwise separated flow region. This jet is observed to break up into discrete structures, limiting the spanwise growth of the radial velocity in the jet layer. The discrete structures are shown to derive their vorticity from the “radial jet” layer near the surface, rather than from the freestream at the edge of the separated region. The separation line determined using velocity data shows the expected spanwise variation. The results of this study are also correlated in a limited range of extrapolation to the phenomena encountered on a full-scale horizontal axis wind turbine in yaw.

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