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Publication Title | ORC analysis of radial inflow turbine and R245fa

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Research Article
Experimental analysis of organic Rankine cycle power generation system with radial inflow turbine and R245fa
Lei Li1,2,3 , Le-ren Tao1,3 and Qing-qing Liu1,3
Abstract
Advances in Mechanical Engineering
2020, Vol. 12(5) 1–10
Ó The Author(s) 2020
DOI: 10.1177/1687814020921663 journals.sagepub.com/home/ade
Small turbines must operate at high rotational speeds to generate adequate output power. In this study, a radial inflow turbine using R245fa as the working fluid is miniaturised and is designed to have a rotational speed of 30,000 r/min. The organic Rankine cycle system is not simplified, and a preheater and a superheater are installed. The turbine is experimen- tally analysed in the organic Rankine cycle system. The experimental results show that with an increase in the inlet pres- sure, the turbine output power and system efficiency increase; moreover, the turbine efficiency first decreases and then increases slightly after the pressure exceeds 1.5 MPa. The turbine efficiency decreases first and then increases and attains the minimum value at an inlet temperature of 100°C–105°C. When the flow rate is 0.82m3/s, the speed reaches its maximum value of 28,000 r/min, and a maximum output power of 17.37 kW is generated. The maximum efficiency of the turbine is 0.885 and that of the system is 0.1625. The experimental data and design parameters of the turbine pro- vide a reference for further design optimization.
Keywords
Organic Rankine cycle, radial inflow turbine, expander, performance analysis, R245fa
Date received: 8 December 2019; accepted: 13 March 2020 Handling Editor: Jose Ramon Serrano
Introduction
In recent years, with the increasing shortage of energy and an increasing focus on environmental protection, energy efficiency and clean energy have attracted con- siderable attention as research topics. Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power generation is an environmentally friendly power generation technology that does not pol- lute the environment.1 ORC power generation systems utilise the low boiling point of organic fluids to generate electricity, such as by using low-temperature industrial waste,2 geothermal energy,3 biomass4 and solar energy5 as heat sources. As ORC systems use water and air in the environment as cold sources, they do not consume non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels and nuclear energy.
To convert low-temperature heat energy into avail- able energy, Yamamoto et al.6 used R123 instead of water as the circulating fluid in a Rankine cycle experi- ment. They observed that the R123 system exhibited better performance than water system when the tem- perature was lower than 120°C. In order to improve the total power generation, Shams Ghoreishi et al.7
1University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai, China 2Zaozhuang University, Zaozhuang, China
3Shanghai Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer in
Power Engineering, Shanghai, China
Corresponding author:
Lei Li, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093, China.
Email: a7082928@126.com
Creative Commons CC BY: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits any use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

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MicroAD: This research and pdf compilation was sponsored Infinity Turbine Turn your waste heat into energy to save on grid based power or sell back to the grid Organic Rankine Cycle utilizes waste heat to make power. Infinity Turbine Waste Heat to Power Solutions

RADIAL-OUTFLOW-TURBINE: In a radial outflow turbine the organic fluid enters the disk axially in its center and expands radially through a series of stages mounted on the single disk. At the discharge of the last rotor row the flow passes through a radial diffuser and is then conveyed to the recuperator and or condensa- tion section of the system, through the discharge volute. In the early 20th century, Parsons Siemens and Ljungstrom developed the first steam based radial outflow turbines. These early model turbines required a large number of stages. For very high enthalpy drop fluids, such as steam, a single-disk/multi stage configuration was therefore deemed not suitable due to the very large diameter disk necessary to accommodate all the required stages. No further development of the radial outflow turbines oc- curred, as they were phased out for steam applications by axial turbines.

The Geothermal Radial Outflow Turbine: An innovative turbine configuration for geothermal applica- tions was developed by the Italian turbine manufacturer EXERGY. The technology, known as the organic radial outflow turbine was designed, engineered, manufactured and tested in Italy. A 1 MWe geothermal organic Rankine cycle (ORC) equipped with the EXERGY radial outflow turbine has been in operation since early 2013. The radial outflow turbine is a new type of turbine that have the potential to increase the geothermal binary power plants ef- ficiency by increasing the turbine efficiency. The operational results has been positive and demonstrates the viability of the technology and the possibility to develop it for bigger sizes.

Preliminary Design and Off-Design Analysis of a Radial Outflow Turbine for Organic Rankine Cycles: Recently, the advantages of radial outflow turbines have been outstanding in various operating conditions of the organic Rankine cycle. However, there are only a few studies of such turbines, and information on the design procedure is insufficient. The turbine target performance could be achieved by fine-tuning the blade angle of the nozzle exit. In addition, performance evaluation of the turbine against off-design conditions was performed. Ranges of velocity ratio, loading coefficient, and flow coefficient that can expect high efficiency were proposed through the off-design analysis of the turbine.

Study on applicability of radial-outflow turbine type for 3 MW WHR organic Rankine cycle: The article presents the results of study on the reasonability of using radial-outflow turbines in ORC. Peculiarities of radial-outflow turbine design utilizing modern design technologies and application to ORC was considered in the first part of the paper. For this particular cycle design, turbines of radial-outflow type were chosen. Their application enables the increase of mechanical output power by 11 percent compared to original radial-inflow turbines.

LOSS GENERATION IN RADIAL OUTFLOW STEAM TURBINE CASCADES: Small high-speed technology based radial outflow steam turbines are characterised by ultra-low aspect ratios, which can lead to rapidly growing secondary losses. The prelimi- nary evaluation of turbine performance is usually based on axial turbine loss predictions, which can be a source of error. The main objectives of this work are to find out how the losses are generated in radial outflow turbines when the aspect ratio is markedly below unity and how accurately axial turbine loss models can predict the trends. To achieve these objectives, a radial outflow turbine cascade having a blade shape and aspect ratios comparable with a prototype machine is examined. As a result of the study, it is suggested that for the examined radial outflow cascade the axial turbine loss correlations can predict the trends reasonably well. The rapidly increasing secondary losses are connected to the merging of secondary structures and also incidence at off-design.

PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF RADIAL-INFLOW TURBINES FOR ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE POWER SYSTEMS CONSIDERING PERFORMANCE AND MANUFACTURABILITY ASPECTS: In order to make organic Rankine cycle power systems economically feasible, it is essential to find a reasonable trade-off between the performance and the initial cost of system. In order to show its relevance in a practical application, the method is applied to two radial-inflow turbines cases: a state-of-the-art turbine using air and a turbine using the working fluid Novec 649 for a heat recovery application. The results indicate that there exists a trade-off between turbine performance and manufacturability, and that it is possible to develop turbine solutions with similar values of efficiency with improved manufacturability indicator by up to 14 to 15 percent.

DESIGN AND FLOW ANALYSIS OF RADIAL AND MIXED FLOW TURBINE VOLUTES: Radial and mixed flow turbines which are an important component of a turbocharger consist essentially of a volute, a rotor and a diffuser. Vaneless volute turbines, which have reasonable performance and low cost, are the most used in turbochargers for automotive engines. Care has to be done in the design of the volute, whose function is to convert a part of the engine exhaust gas energy into kinetic energy and direct the flow towards the rotor inlet at an appropriate flow angle with reduced losses.

An Exploration of Radial Flow on a Rotating Blade in Retreating Blade Stall: The nature of radial flow during retreating blade stall on a two-bladed teetering rotor with cyclic pitch variation is investigated using laser sheet visualization and particle image velocimetry in a low-speed wind tunnel. The velocity field above the retreating blade at 270◦ azimuth shows the expected development of a radially directed jet layer close to the blade surface in the otherwise separated flow region. This jet is observed to break up into discrete structures, limiting the spanwise growth of the radial velocity in the jet layer. The discrete structures are shown to derive their vorticity from the “radial jet” layer near the surface, rather than from the freestream at the edge of the separated region. The separation line determined using velocity data shows the expected spanwise variation. The results of this study are also correlated in a limited range of extrapolation to the phenomena encountered on a full-scale horizontal axis wind turbine in yaw.

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